Crude Oil Desalting Process. By Juan Pereira, Ingrid Velasquez, Ronald Blanco, Meraldo Sanchez, César Pernalete and Carlos Canelón. Submitted: October. A desalter is a process unit in an oil refinery that removes salt from the crude oil. The salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil, not in the crude oil itself. The desalting is usually the first process in crude oil refining. If salt is not removed from crude oil, serious damage can result, especially in the Desalting and fractional distillation of crude oil schematic as described in text.

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Peer reviewed desalting of crude oil Published between: In the refineries, the two stages desalting system is normally applied, desaltibg consists desalting of crude oil 2 electrostatic Coalescers Desalter.

Less obvious but also important is the need for dilution water to be of sufficient quality to avoid contributing to emulsification. Spiral heat exchanger solves costly fouling problems. Desalting and fractional distillation of crude oil. High-speed centrifuges are used successfully in the exploration, delivery and treatment of crude oils and oily water applications.

The lightest compounds found in crude oil come out from the o of the distillation desaltin referred to as overhead distillate, or full-range desalting of crude oil and desapting sent to the Light Ends Unit LEU for further separation into LPG and naphtha, as discussed later. If available, ion chromatography also may be used for chloride determination.

Because of the high g-forces and separation efficiency the overall cost per barrel crude oil can be decreased as temperature, using of chemicals, wash water and electrical consumption can be reduced. The emulsification is important for contact between the salty production water contained in the oil and the wash water. Sheriff’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.

Crude oil desalting

Such desalting of crude oil crude oils cannot be handled in the traditional way. Introduction Production of Crude oil When produced from the reservoir, crude oil contains contaminants such as water, suspended solids and water-soluble salts. A rule of thumb is that approximately 0.

Because of the widespread occurrence desalting of crude oil chloride in nature and the very small quantity being measured in this method, take care to avoid contaminating the sample during handling. As a well ages and oil becomes difficult to remove, water or steam is injected into the reservoirs to help force the oil to the surface.

The need to supply heat to vaporize water reduces crude pre-heat capacity. Minimizing refinery costs using spiral heat exchangers kB.

dexalting Optimizing heat recovery with compact plate heat exchangers kB. In effect, the remainder of the water bypasses the desalting stage and is disposed of as oof water. Crude oil introduced to refinery processing contains many undesirable impurities, such as sand, inorganic saltsdrilling mud, polymer, desalting of crude oil byproduct, etc.

Through this means of exposing metadata, IntechOpen enables citation indexes, scientific search engines, scholarly databases, and scientific literature collections to gather the metadata from our repository and make our publications available to a broader academic audience. This page was last edited on 18 Decemberat Amount of desalting of crude oil wash and temperature of the mixing process depend mainly on the crude API gravity [2].

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The required maximum concentration of water in oil to meet a known salt specification can be derived from Eq. Injecting fresh water ahead of the desalting of crude oil train can help offset this problem and can alleviate desalting of crude oil exchanger fouling. More volatile compounds with ddesalting boiling points tend oi vaporize more readily than heavy compounds, and this forms the basis of separation through distillation.

The sand or silt can cause significant damage due to abrasion or erosion to pumps, pipelines, etc. Your request was successfully sent! Typical Instrument datasheet- Motor Operated Valve. Product videos and animations.

Desalting of crude oil in refinery – EnggCyclopedia

The static mixers are installed upstream the emulsifying devices to improve the contact between the salt in the crude oil and the wash water injected desalting of crude oil the line. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions.

With all recycle streams, be careful as to the quality of the water: Sign up for free if you are not a member already. Better corrosion control in CDU overhead Less erosion by solids in control valves, exchanger, furnace, pumps Saving of oil from slops from waste oil Desalting process. Operational considerations of emulsion treating. Built by scientists, for scientists. Increasing energy efficiency in refinery desalting processes Recovering desaltin from desalting effluent water serves two purposes.

desalting of crude oil

Request service or support. If a single-stage desalting system requires too much dilution water or is desalting of crude oil to reach the desired salt concentration, then a two-stage system is used, such as the one shown schematically in Fig.

But selecting the same metal for use in highly efficient Alfa Laval heat exchangers is much less expensive because the heat transfer surface is at least cfude times less than comparable shell-and-tubes and plates are made of thin metal sheets.

Desalting of crude oil in refinery

A desalting unit can be designed with single stage or two stages. To avoid corrosion due to salts in the crude oil, corrosion control can be used. Polarization of pf droplets pulls them out from oil-water emulsion phase. Effluent water from the second-stage desalter is much desalting of crude oil saline than the dispersed brine, so that it can be used for dilution water for the first stage, as shown in Fig. If necessary, one the following methods may be used to enhance separation:.

Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. When the salinity of the produced brine is not too high, merely ensuring that there is desalting of crude oil low fraction of water in the oil can reduce salt content.

The purpose of crude oil desalting is to remove these undesirable impurities, especially salts and water, from the crude oil prior to distillation.